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2nd International Conference on Microbial Ecology & Eco Systems, will be organized around the theme “Challenges and Solutions for the backbone of all ecosystems”

Microbial Ecology 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Microbial Ecology 2018

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Soil science is a radiant culture media for the extension and advancement of grouped microorganisms. The soil is related idle static material, however, a medium beating with life. Soil at present is accepted to be a dynamic or living framework containing numerous particular groups of microorganisms and among them like parasites, actinomycetes, protozoa and infections square measure the principal fundamental. Micro-organisms make a truly little portion of the dirt mass and involve a volume of yet one-hundredth. Inside the higher layer of soil, the microbial population is high to a great degree that reduces the profundity of soil. Each creature or a gaggle of life forms square measure responsible for a chose correction or change inside the dirt. The respective session of this Microbiology Conference will focus on Maintenance of biological equilibrium, minimization of pollutants in agricultural soil by microbes, biofertilizers and biopesticides and related such areas which will bring forward the importance of soil microbiology

Microbes also play a key role in the nitrogen cycle. Bacteria in the soil convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates in the soil. Nitrates are an essential plant nutrient – they need the nitrogen for proteins - and the plants themselves provide food for livestock and other animals. The nitrogen locked in plant and animal proteins is then degraded into nitrates by microbes and eventually converted back into nitrogen by denitrifying bacteria. Compost heaps are a fantastic example of how effectively microbes break down organic matter. The mixture of garden weed, grass clippings and mouldy fruit and veg is decomposed rapidly by fungi and bacteria into carbon dioxide and plant compost containing nourishing nitrates and nitrites. Without the recycling power of microbes dead vegetation, carcasses and food waste would start piling up around us! In the UK 6.7 million tonnes of food waste is thrown away every year.

  • Track 1-1Dynamics of Soil flora and fauna
  • Track 1-2Ecology of the Soil Biota and their Function
  • Track 1-3Influences on soil microbiota / Microbiology
  • Track 1-4Soil microbes and Humus formation
  • Track 1-5Soil microbes and organic matter decomposition
  • Track 1-6Soil microbes and soil structure
  • Track 1-7Soil microbes and plant growth
  • Track 1-8Carbon fixation
  • Track 1-9Symobiotic microorganisms
  • Track 1-10Harmful and unhelpful microbes
  • Track 1-11Soil microbes Actinomycetes, Algae, Bacteria, Bacteriophages, Cyanobacteria, Fungi, Mycoviruses and Protozoa
  • Track 1-12Biochemical processes
  • Track 1-13Microbes cope in nutrient deficient soil
  • Track 1-14Approaches to Studying the Soil Biota
  • Track 1-15Plant-Soil Biota Interactions

Antibiotic resistance is a natural phenomenon. When an antibiotic is used, bacteria that can resist that antibiotic have a greater chance of survival than those that are "susceptible."

Modern Antibiotics Development of new antimicrobial drugs is an essential component in the effort to remain ahead of emerging microbial resistance. However, when new antibiotics are used with unrestrained enthusiasm, a predictable consequence is the further expansion of resistance. This problem is well known to the infectious diseases specialist and is increasingly appreciated by the nonspecialist and the public. A far more sensible strategy is to identify new ways to use these drugs to increase the duration of their usefulness. New methods to optimize antibiotic selection, dose, and duration of therapy are being investigated.

Importance and Scope: Numerous pathogens that have become resistant to commonly used antibiotics have been described in various contexts, including drug-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pneumonia, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antibiotics-2015 is the premier event that brings together a unique and International mix of experts, researchers and decision-makers from both academia and industry across the globe to exchange their knowledge, experience and research innovations. There is a renewed interest in the antibiotic sector, which is evident from the most recent patents and investments. Bacterial vaccines and new antibiotic classes are gaining a tremendous amount of attention with several product candidates in clinical development. This conference focuses exclusively on antibiotics, bacterial vaccines, and other emerging antibacterials.

  • Track 2-1Antibiotic resistant bacteria
  • Track 2-2Antimicrobial peptides
  • Track 2-3Antimicrobial gel
  • Track 2-4Antimicrobial bullets
  • Track 2-5Honeybee’s role in antibiotics
  • Track 2-6Bacterial mechanisms against antibiotics
  • Track 2-7Antimicrobial effects
  • Track 2-8Antivirals
  • Track 2-9Antifungals
  • Track 2-10Antibiotics
  • Track 2-11Antimicrobial resistance
  • Track 2-12Antimicrobial use in cosmetics and detergents

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that inhabit, create, or contaminate food, including the study of microorganisms causing food spoilage. "Good" bacteria, however, such as probiotics, are becoming increasingly important in food science. In addition, microorganisms are essential for the production of foods such as cheese, yoghurt, bread, beer, wine and, other fermented foods.

Importance and Scope: Food safety is a major focus of food microbiology. Pathogenic bacteria, viruses and toxins produced by microorganisms are all possible contaminants of food. However, microorganisms and their products can also be used to combat these pathogenic microbes. Probiotic bacteria, including those that produce bacteriocins, can kill and inhibit pathogens. Alternatively, purified bacteriocins such as nisin can be added directly to food products. Finally, bacteriophages, viruses that only infect bacteria, can be used to kill bacterial pathogens. Thorough preparation of food, including proper cooking, eliminates most bacteria and viruses. However, toxins produced by contaminants may not be liable to change to non-toxic forms by heating or cooling the contaminated food. Fermentation is one of the methods to preserve food and alter its quality. Yeast, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used to leaven bread, brew beer and make wine. Certain bacteria, including lactic acid bacteria, are used to make yoghurt, cheese, hot sauce, pickles, fermented sausages and dishes such as kimchi. A common effect of these fermentations is that the food product is less hospitable to other microorganisms, including pathogens and spoilage-causing microorganisms, thus extending the food's shelf-life. Some cheese varieties also require moulds to ripen and develop their characteristic flavours. To ensure the safety of food products, microbiological tests such as testing for pathogens and spoilage organisms are required. This way the risk of contamination under normal use conditions can be examined and food poisoning outbreaks can be prevented. Testing of food products and ingredients is important along the whole supply chain as possible flaws of products can occur at every stage of production. Apart from detecting spoilage, microbiological tests can also determine germ content, identify yeasts and moulds, and salmonella. For salmonella, scientists are also developing rapid and portable technologies capable of identifying unique variants of Salmonella. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a quick and inexpensive method to generate numbers of copies of a DNA fragment at a specific band ("PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)," 2008). For that reason, scientists are using PCR to detect different kinds of viruses or bacteria, such as HIV and anthrax based on their unique DNA patterns. Various kits are commercially available to help in food pathogen nucleic acids extraction, PCR detection, and differentiation. The detection of bacterial strands in food products is very important to everyone in the world, for it helps prevent the occurrence of foodborne illness. Therefore, PCR is recognized as a DNA detector in order to amplify and trace the presence of pathogenic strands in different processed food.

  • Track 3-1Food Borne Bacterial Pathogens
  • Track 3-2Bio films in food industry
  • Track 3-3Food Chain
  • Track 3-4Food for oral health
  • Track 3-5Testing and methods of analysis
  • Track 3-6Foodborne illness
  • Track 3-7Dairy products
  • Track 3-8Food processing and preservation
  • Track 3-9Optimization of food fermentation
  • Track 3-10Microbiological Analyses in the monitoring of quality management
  • Track 3-11Microbial growth and intrinsic factors
  • Track 3-12Controlling of food spoilage
  • Track 3-13Food safety measures
  • Track 3-14Food Allergens
  • Track 3-15Fermented Foods
  • Track 3-16Fungal biofilms

Plant and Agricultural Microbiology is the study of the organisms and environmental conditions that cause disease in plants, the mechanisms by which this occurs, the interactions between these causal agents and the plant (effects on plant growth, yield and quality), and the methods of managing or controlling plant disease. It also interfaces knowledge from other scientific fields such as mycology, microbiology, virology, biochemistry, bioinformatics, etc.

Plant disease is an impairment of the normal state of a plant that interrupts or modifies its vital functions. All species of plants, wild and cultivated alike are subject to disease. Although each species is susceptible to characteristic diseases, these are, in each case, relatively few in numbers. The occurrence and prevalence of plant diseases vary from season to season, depending on the presence of the pathogen, environmental conditions, and the crops and varieties grown. Some plant varieties are particularly subject to outbreaks of diseases; others are more resistant to them.

Importance and Scope: Control of plant diseases is crucial to the reliable production of food, and it provides significant reductions in the agricultural use of land, water, fuel and other inputs. Plants in both natural and cultivated populations carry inherent disease resistance, but there are numerous examples of devastating plant disease impacts, as well as recurrent severe plant diseases. However, disease control is reasonably successful for most crops. Disease control is achieved by use of plants that have been bred for good resistance to many diseases, and by a plant, cultivation approaches such as crop rotation, use of pathogen-free seed, appropriate planting date and plant density, control of field moisture, and pesticide use. Across large regions and many crop species, it is estimated that diseases typically reduce plant yields by 10% every year in more developed settings, but yield loss to diseases often exceeds 20% in less developed settings. Continuing advances in the science of plant pathology are needed to improve disease control, and to keep up with changes in disease pressure caused by the on-going evolution and movement of plant pathogens and by changes in agricultural practices.

  • Track 4-1Fungal toxins
  • Track 4-2Root microbiome engineering
  • Track 4-3Microbial diseases of Plants
  • Track 4-4Rhizosphere
  • Track 4-5Free-Living Protozoa
  • Track 4-6Adverse effects of chemicals used in fertilizers on agricultural products
  • Track 4-7Biofertilizers from crops, microbes, waste & Pollutants
  • Track 4-8Oomycetes and microorganisms in plant diseases
  • Track 4-9Forest microbiology
  • Track 4-10Bio fertilizers and bio pesticides
  • Track 4-11Rhizobial inoculants as legume crop growers
  • Track 4-12Nitrogen-fixing bacteria & plants
  • Track 4-13Antibiotics and environmental pollution
  • Track 4-14Bacteria for neutralizing greenhouse gases

Applied Microbiology is a set of practices that use living cells or component cells such as enzymes to generate industrial products & processes. It is a key enabling technology to realize a bio-economy that uses biological resources as an input to industrial processes, and bio-based processes to help industries become more environmentally sustainable.

Microbial productions have occupied a significant role in various areas of fermentation industry, food and beverage industry, biotechnology research, detergent industry. Microbial productions have a pivotal responsibility in industrial biotechnology which involves the use of microorganisms and enzymes to produce biobased products in sectors like chemicals, food & feed, paper, textiles and bioenergy. Microbial products include antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins, amino acids. Antibiotics are substances derived by some bacteria or fungi that can either inhibit the growth or kill other microorganisms. Antibiotics are produced industrially by fermentation where the source microorganism is grown in containers of size 100,000–150,000 litters or more in the presence of liquid growth medium.

Scope and Importance: Microalgae as a biofactory offer a promising approach towards the production of omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These fatty acids provide significant health benefits and their consumption has increased as dietary supplements. Microalgal biotechnology explores the potential applications of autotrophic microalgae as aquaculture feed and in the development of biofuel crops. Microalgae can also be used as the production platforms for the development of omega- 3 fatty acids. Studies have reported that techniques like metabolic engineering and selective breeding can be applied successfully to produce large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in microalgae.

Microbial cells, either bacteria or yeast are used as hosts to produce recombinant pharmaceuticals. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) have represented that the microbial cells represent convenient and powerful tools for recombinant protein production. Biofactory refers to any system that can produce useful amounts of biologically-active compounds such as recombinant proteins, therapeutics. Hosts such as bacteria, yeasts, mammalian and insect cells, transgenic plants and animals can be exploited for the large-scale production of diagnostic and therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming which is a keystone tool of plant biotechnology focuses on the exploitation of plants of agronomic relevance as biofactories for large-scale production of biomolecules. The whole plant or plant cell culture have been used for the production of biopharmaceuticals like cytokines, blood proteins, milk proteins, hormones, antibodies, metabolic enzymes, antigens and vaccines and many more biological molecules used in animal and human health care.

  • Track 6-1Plastic recycling
  • Track 6-2Recycling and Optimization of waste
  • Track 6-3Recycling of water
  • Track 6-4Biological recycling

Metagenomic approaches are now commonly used in microbial ecology to study microbial communities in more detail, including many strains that cannot be cultivated in the laboratory. Bioinformatic analyses make it possible to mine huge metagenomic datasets and discover general patterns that govern microbial ecosystems. Metaproteomics proposed for the large-scale characterization of the entire protein complement of environmental microbiota at a given point in time. Two thousand and thirty-three proteins from the five most abundant species in the biofilm were detected, including 48% of the predicted proteins from the dominant biofilm organism Leptospirillum group II.

  • Track 7-1Metagenomics
  • Track 7-2Metaproteomics
  • Track 7-3Ecogenomics
  • Track 7-4Metatranscriptomics

Ecumenical change is altering species distributions and thus interactions among organisms. Organisms live in concert with thousands of other species, some benign, some pathogenic, some which have little to no effect in intricate communities. Since natural communities are composed of organisms with very different life history traits and dispersal competency it is unlikely they will all respond to climatic transmutation in a kindred way. Disjuncts in plant-pollinator and plant-herbivore interactions under ecumenical change have been relatively well described, but plant-soil microorganism and soil microbe-microbe relationships have received less attention. Since soil microorganisms regulate nutrient transformations, provide plants with nutrients, sanction co-esse among neighbors, and control plant populations, transmutations in soil microorganism-plant interactions could have paramount ramifications for plant community composition and ecosystem function.

  • Track 8-1Direct and indirect effects of climate change
  • Track 8-2Experimental warming effects on the microbial community
  • Track 8-3Microbial responses to multi-factor climate change
  • Track 8-4Soil Microbes and Climate change
  • Track 9-1Soil pollution
  • Track 9-2Water pollution
  • Track 9-3Air pollution

Many industrial processes engender contaminated wastewater capable of causing earnest ecological harm that may result in heftily ponderous fines and prosecution if relinquished into the environment without felicitous pre-treatment. Conventional treatment systems can be very sumptuous to build and operate. MBD Energy offers industry partners potential for cost-preserving pre-treatment or full bioremediation (depending on the contamination type and rigor), together with potential for the engenderment of valuable biomass and algae-predicated products. Whether utilising cull strains of algae or bacteria, all MBD’s bioremediation solutions harness the puissance of nature to biologically convert industrial waste into biomass, which can be utilized for fuel, fertiliser, victuals or aliment – depending on the contamination type. Albeit bioremediation holds great promise for dealing with intractable environmental quandaries, it is consequential to agnize that much of this promise has yet to be realized. Concretely, much needs to be learned about how microorganisms interact with different hydrologic environments. As this under-standing increases, the efficiency and applicability of bioremediation will grow rapidly. Because of its unique interdisciplinary expertise in microbiology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry, the USGS will perpetuate to be at the forefront of this exhilarating and rapidly evolving technology.
 
Biodegradation is nature's way of recycling wastes, or breaking down organic matter into nutrients that can be utilized by other organisms. "Degradation" denotes decay, and the "bio-" prefix betokens that the decay is carried out by an immensely colossal assortment of bacteria, fungi, insects, worms, and other organisms that victual dead material and recycle it into incipient forms. In nature, there is no waste because everything gets recycled. The waste products from one organism become the aliment for others, providing nutrients and energy while breaking down the waste organic matter. Some organic materials will break down much more expeditious than others, but all will eventually decay. By harnessing these natural forces of biodegradation, people can reduce wastes and emaculate some types of environmental contaminants. Through composting, we expedite natural biodegradation and convert organic wastes to a valuable resource. Wastewater treatment additionally expedites natural forces of biodegradation. In this case the purport is to break down organic matter so that it will not cause pollution quandaries when the dihydrogen monoxide is relinquished into the environment. Through bioremediation, microorganisms are acclimated to emaculate oil spills and other types of organic pollution. Composting and bioremediation provide many possibilities for student research.
 

  • Track 10-1Phytoremediation
  • Track 10-2Biodeterioration
  • Track 10-3Bioremediation
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  • Track 10-9
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  • Track 10-11
  • Track 10-12Biodegradation

Most living things that are visible to the unclad ocular perceiver in their adult form are eukaryotes, including humans. However, a sizably voluminous number of eukaryotes are withal microorganisms. Microbial eukaryotes are a consequential component of the human gut microbiome. Eukaryotes that reside in the human gut are dispersed across the eukaryotic tree and their relationship with the human host varies from parasitic to opportunistic to commensal to mutualistic. Eukaryotes are one of the three domains of life and are defined by the presence of nuclei. Animals, plants, and fungi are the most visible clades of eukaryotes, but these are just three of the 70+ lineages, most of which are microbial.

 

  • Track 11-1Protists
  • Track 11-2Animals
  • Track 11-3Fungi
  • Track 11-4Plants

A biofuel is a fuel that is engendered via contemporary biological processes, like agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel engendered by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter. Biofuels can be derived directly from plants, or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes. Renewable biofuels commonly involve contemporary carbon fixation, like those that occur in plants or microalgae through the process of photosynthesis. Other renewable biofuels are made through the utilization or conversion of biomass (referring to recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials). This biomass can be converted to convenient energy-containing substances in three different methods: thermal conversion, chemical conversion, and biochemical conversion. This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or gas form. Recently, lipases have been studied for biodiesel engenderment as whole-cell immobilized lipases. Each type of biocatalyst has its strengths and impotencies when it comes to reducing the contribution of the biocatalyst in the final cost of the biodiesel. Recent studies have been fixating on ameliorating catalysis performance and stability of the enzyme with the aim to reduce the lipase cost in the biodiesel conversion process. Different procedures have been developed for application mode of lipases. Solid state fermentation, whole-cell biocatalyst and immobilized lipase in different fortifies are the main studied modes.

  • Track 12-1Production of biofuels and use as biocatalysts
  • Track 12-2Crops for biofuel production
  • Track 12-3Biofuel production from waste vegetables
  • Track 12-4Biofuel as automobile fuel
  • Track 12-5Cost effective techniques for biofuel production
  • Track 12-6Enzymatic biofuel production
  • Track 12-7Biofuel production on industry level and scale up
  • Track 12-8Biofuel as automobile fuel and Market opportunities
  • Track 12-9Biofuel production from municipal waste

A biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover is a pathway by that a chemical substance moves through both the biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) components of Earth. A cycle is a series of transmuting which comes back to the commencement point and which can be reiterated. The term "biogeochemical" tells us about the biological, geological and chemical factors. The circulation of chemical nutrients like carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, and dihydrogen monoxide etc. through the biological and physical world are kenned as "biogeochemical cycles".

  • Track 13-1
  • Track 13-2
  • Track 13-3Rock cycle
  • Track 13-4Sulfur cycle
  • Track 13-5Phosphorus cycle
  • Track 13-6Oxygen cycle
  • Track 13-7Metal Cycling
  • Track 13-8Nitrogen Cycle
  • Track 13-9Carbon Cycle
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  • Track 14-1Gut Microbilogy
  • Track 14-2Microbiome
  • Track 14-3
  • Track 14-4

Like organisms in any ecosystem, the microbes in the human body continually interact with one another, both directly and indirectly (the proteins and metabolites they engender are withal in constant interplay). Microbial communities exhibit synergistic interactions for enhanced bulwark from host defences, nutrient acquisition, and assiduousness in an inflammatory environment. Hundreds of different microbes persist in a single biofilm community. More virulent bacteria can forfend the biofilm from outside intrusion while other species inside the polymeric matrix fixate on obtaining nutrients for the community. As the biofilm forms and then develops, the collective genetic expression of microbes in the ecosystem changes significantly.

  • Track 15-1Microbe-microbe
  • Track 15-2Microbe-plant
  • Track 15-3Microbe-animal
  • Track 15-4Microbe-virus

A biofilm is an amassment of microbial communities enclosed by a matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and dissevered by a network of open dihydrogen monoxide channels. These communities adhere to manmade and natural surfaces, such as metals and teeth, typically at a liquid-solid interface. Their architecture is an optimal environment for cell-cell interactions, including the intercellular exchange of genetic material, communication signals, and metabolites, which enables diffusion of obligatory nutrients to the biofilm community. The matrix in which microbes in a biofilm are embedded forfends them from UV exposure, metal toxicity, acid exposure, dehydration and salinity, phagocytosis, antibiotics, and antimicrobial agents. The protective EPS and the unsurpassed metabolic multifariousness and phenotypic plasticity of microbes, likely expound how bacteria are able to persist in so many variants of environments, including those that are inhospitable to higher forms of life. By composing organized communities with other microbes, they can even further elongate their competency to acclimate and thrive in even the most truculent environments.

  • Track 16-1New and Innovative Technologies for Biofilms Research
  • Track 16-2Controlled Cultivation of Microbial Biofilms
  • Track 16-3Molecular Biology of Microbial Biofilms
  • Track 16-4Advanced Imaging of Microbial Biofilms
  • Track 16-5Oral Biofilm Communities
  • Track 17-1Microbial Pathogenesis
  • Track 17-2Infectious diseases
  • Track 17-3Pathogenic Microbes
  • Track 17-4Immune response

Microorganisms are called microbes for short. This class of life forms includes cellular life forms as well as the non-living crystals called viruses that parasitize living cells. The category called microbes includes viruses, bacteria, protists, some forms of fungus organisms and a few simple members of the animal kingdom. Microbes exist everywhere in abundance. Most are not harmful but some in category are known as pathogens and are harmful. The term pathogen indicates disease causing.

  • Track 18-1Role of microorganisms in the evolution of animals and plants
  • Track 18-2Elements in microbial evolution
  • Track 18-3Interspecific evolution: microbial symbiosis
  • Track 18-4Evolution of quorum sensing in bacterial biofilms